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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOL. 63

** EVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO, BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESHARCHES, AND EXPERIMENTS, PROCURES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN ’’—SMITHSON

(PUBLICATION 2320)

CITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 1914

CBe Lord Galtimore Press

BALTIMORE, MD., U.S. A.

ADVERTISEMENT

The present series, entitled “Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- tions,” is intended to embrace the principal publications issued directly by the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form; and is designed to contain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular branches of science, instructions for collecting and digesting facts and materials for research, lists and synopses of species of the organic and inorganic world, reports of explorations, aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally prepared at the express request of the Institution.

The Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,” in quarto form, embraces the records of extended original investigations and researches, resulting in what are believed to be new truths, and constituting positive additions to the sum of human knowledge.

In both of these series each article bears a distinct number, and is also separately paged unless the entire volume relates to ore subject. The date of the publication of each article is that given on its special title-page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In many cases papers have been published and largely distributed, several months before their combination into volumes.

CHAS. D/ WALCOTT, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

J

(iii)

Io.

CONTENTS

. HinspaLe, Guy. Atmospheric air in relation to tuberculosis.

Published June 22, 1914. x+136 pp., 93 pls. (Publication Number 2254.)

. Crark, AusTIN Hopart. Notes on some specimens of a species

of Onychophore (Oroperipatus corradoi) new to the fauna of Panama. February 21, 1914. 2 pp. (Pub. No. 2261.)

. GILMORE, CHARLES, W. A new Ceratopsian dinosaur from the

Upper Cretaceous of Montana, with note on Hypacrosaurus. March 21, 1914. lopp.,2 pls. (Pub. No. 2262.)

. Prrtier, H. On the relationship of the genus Aulacocarpus,

with description of a new Panamanian species. March 18, 1914 4-pp. (Pub. No: 2264.)

. GOLDMAN, E. A. Descriptions of five new mammals from Pan-

ama. March 14,1914. 7 pp. (Pub. No. 2266.)

. FowLe, FREDERICK E. Smithsonian Physical Tables. Sixth

revised edition. November 10, 1914. xxxvi+355 pp. (Pub. No. 2269.)

. HELLER, Epmunp. New subspecies of mammals from Equa-

torial Africa... June 24, 1914. 12 pp. (Pub. No. 2272.)

. Explorations and field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in

1913. November 27, 1914. 88 pp. (Pub. No. 2275.)

. McInpoo, N. E. The olfactory sense of insects. November 21,

“1994. 63" pp. (Pub, No: 2315.)

FEewkEs, J. WALTER. Archeology of the Lower Mimbres Valley, New Mexico. December 18, 1914. 53 pp., 8 pls. (Pub. No. 2316.)

(v)

od

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOLUME 63, NUMBER 1]

Hodgkins Fund

ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN RELATION TO TUBERCULOSIS

(WitH 93 PLates)

BY

GUY HINSDALE, A. M., M. D. Hort Sprincs, VIRGINIA. Secretary of the American Climatological Association; Ex-President Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis; Fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia; Associate Professor of Climatology, Medico-Chirurgical College; Member of the American Neurological Asso- ciation; Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, Great Britain; Corresponding Member of the International Anti-Tuberculosis Association, etc.

wPesc0000e®

(Pusiication 2254)

CITY OF WASHINGTON PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 1914

TBe Lord Baltimore Press

BALTIMORE, MD., U.S. A.

ADVERTISEMENT

The accompanying paper, by Dr. Guy Hinsdale, on Atmospheric Air in Relation to Tuberculosis,” is one of nearly a hundred essays entered in competition for a prize of $1,500 offered by the Smith- sonian Institution for the best treatise ‘‘ On the Relation of Atmos- pheric Air to Tuberculosis,” to be presented in connection with the International Congress on Tuberculosis held in Washington, Sep- tember 21 to October 12, 1908. The essays were submitted to a Committee of Award, consisting of Dr. William H. Welch, of Johns Hopkins University, Chairman ; Prof. William M. Davis, of Harvard University ; Dr. George M. Sternberg, Surgeon-General, U. S. A., Ret’d; Dr. Simon Flexner, Director of Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York; Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, of New York, General Medical Officer, Department of Health, New York City ; Dr. George Dock, Medical Department, Washington Univer- sity, St. Louis; and Dr. John S. Fulton, of Baltimore, Secretary General of the Congress on Tuberculosis. Upon the recommenda- tion of the committee, the prize was divided equally between Dr. Guy Hinsdale, of Hot Springs, Virginia, and Dr. S. Adolphus Knopf, of New York City.

At the request of the Institution, Dr. Hinsdale has revised his essay so as to indicate some of the advances made in the study of the subject during the past five years.

Cuartes D. WALCOTT, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

WASHINGTON, DECEMBER, IQ13.

iii

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TERMS OF COMPETITION SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION HODGKINS FUND PRIZE

In October, 1891, Thomas George Hodgkins, Esquire, of Setauket, New York, made a donation to the Smithsonian Institution, the in- come from a part of which was to be devoted to “the increase and diffusion of more exact knowledge in regard to the nature and prop- erties of atmospheric air in connection with the welfare of man.” In furtherance of the donor’s wishes, the Smithsonian Institution has from time to time offered prizes, awarded medals, made grants for investigations, and issued publications.

In connection with the approaching International Congress on Tuberculosis, which will be held in Washington, September 21 to October 12, 1908, a prize of $1,500 is offered for the best treatise “On the Relation of Atmospheric Air to Tuberculosis.” Memoirs having relation to the cause, spread, prevention, or cure of tuberculo- sis are included within the general terms of the subject.

Any memoir read before the International Congress on Tuberculo- sis, or sent to the Smithsonian Institution or to the Secretary-General of the Congress before its close, namely, October 12, 1908, will be considered in the competition.

The memoirs may be written in English, French, German, Spanish or Italian. They should be submitted either in manuscript or type- written copy, or if in type, printed as manuscript. If written in German, they should be in Latin script. They will be examined and the prize awarded by a Committee appointed by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in conjunction with the officers of the International Congress on Tuberculosis.

Such memoirs must not have been published prior to the Congress. The Smithsonian Institution reserves the right to publish the treatise to which the prize is awarded.

No condition as to the length of the treatises is established, it being expected that the practical results of important investigations will be set forth as convincingly and tersely as the subject will permit.

The right is reserved to award no prize if in the judgment of the Committee no contribution is offered of sufficient merit to warrant such action. CHarites D. WALCOTT,

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

WasuincTon, D. C., Fepruary 3, 1908.

PREFACE

The rapid progress in the antituberculosis movement throughout the world in the last five years has made it necessary to make some changes in the present essay as originally presented to the Smith- sonian Institution in 1908. Much that then seemed novel appears almost commonplace now. An extraordinary amount of research has been carried out with reference to the atmospheric air during these later years. The whole theory of ventilation has been stated in new terms; the presence of ozone in the atmosphere, a subject that has always appealed to the popular fancy since its discovery, has been restudied and its physiologic action assigned a value differ- ent from that commonly ascribed to it; the properties of strong sunlight and Alpine air have been marshalled for the combat with surgical tuberculosis, particularly in children.

Physiologists in Europe and America have lately made most in- teresting studies.of the blood at the higher altitudes and their obser- vations are constantly throwing new light on the entire subject of aerotherapy, replacing old impressions and beliefs with a scientific basis on which we may confidently build.

There never was a time when the outdoor life and the accessories for the atmospheric treatment of all tuberculous persons were so well systematized and placed in harmony with the other hygienic measures adopted for their cure.

What the result has been we have endeavored to show and what the future holds for us we are eagerly awaiting.

May the Smithsonian Institution, through its Hodgkins Fund, continue to stimulate inquiry and disseminate the fruits of the worldwide efforts to the better understanding of the great problems that yet remain unsolved.

; Guy HINSDALE.

Hor Springs, VA., DECEMBER, 1913.

Vil

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER : » PAGE

MUNI CLeChL@ IMRT ET eee Reet ere Ee ei tnis, cherereveus csibante wise ews Difficulty of estimating the value of atmospheric air, aside from other agents in treating tubercular disease; prevention of tuberculosis; sanatoria; pioneers in the treatment of tubercu- losis in America’; the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium.

II. Value of Forests: Micro-organisms, Atmospheric Impurities...... General benefit of forests; qualities of forest air and soil; car-

bon dioxide; oxygen; ozone; use of forest reservations for sana-

toria; micro-organisms in the respiratory passages ; composition

of expired air; atmospheric impurities, coal and smoke, carbonic

acid, sulphur dioxide, ammonia; oxygen for tuberculous patients.

IIT. Influence of Sea Air; Inland Seas and Lakes. as Sea voyages; marine climate of evans Prete Siete: deat: ing sanatoria; seaside sanatoria for children; seacoast and fogs; fogs on the Pacific coast; radiation fogs; fogs in the moun- tains; sea air for surgical tuberculosis; air of inland seas and lakes.

IV. Influence of Compressed and Rarefied Air; High and Low Atmos- PEK CHaReSStne MeN ittETIC Cue nn Nersiede a neieueteet enters sicis «160. = Discovery of the advantages of Colorado and California cli- mate for consumptives ; works of S. E. Solly, Charles Theodore Williams on Colorado; Jourdanet on Mexico; Paul Bert on diminished barometric pressure, etc.; insolation; diathermancy of the air; Alpine resorts; surgical tuberculosis treatment in Switzerland; cases of high altitude treatment; effect of cold beneficial; expansion of the thorax at the higher altitude;

choice of cases for treatment at altitudes.

V. Influence of Increased Atmospheric Pressure, Condensed Air...... The effect of barometric changes on the spirits; artificially compressed air, C. T. Williams, Von Vivenot; pneumatic cabinet; Prof. Bier’s treatment of surgicai tuberculosis by arti-

ficial hyperemia.

Wi» Artincial’ Pressure: Breathing Exercises ............-.+--+-+2000s Pulmonary gymnastics; exercise at lowered air pressures; atmospheric compression of the affected lung, Murphy’s Method, artificial pneumothorax; song cure. VII. Fresh Air Schools for the Tuberculous; Ventilation. . ; Waldschule or fresh air schools for Pinereulone: ehildnens Providence fresh air school; defects of school buildings; hy- gienic safeguards in schools; rebreathed air; open air chapels

and theatres; ventilation of dwellings. 1X

61

98

103

x TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

VIII. Exercise in Tuberculosis; Graduated Labor . is Effect of exercise on the opsonic index of Sates eeeene from pulmonary tuberculosis; work of Dr. Paterson, Mr. In- man and Sir Almroth Wright.

IX. Accessories for Fresh Air Treatment of Tuberculosis ............ Tents; pavilion tents; tent houses; shacks; disused trolley cars; balconies; day camps; sleeping porches; pavilions; hospi-

tal roof wards; detached cottages; sleeping canopies.

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120

Hodgkins Fund

MIMOSPEERIGC ALRYIN RELATION TO TUBERCULOSIS By GUY HINSDALE, A.M., M. D., Hor Sprines, Va. (WitTH 93 PLATES)

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

We are compelled to acknowledge at the outset the difficulty or impossibility of analyzing the relationship of atmospheric air to tuberculosis so as to isolate the influence of all other factors. It would be totally useless and impossible to consider air independent of sunlight, heat, rainfall, the configuration of the earth’s surface ; racial characteristics, social environment, including dwellings, cloth- ing, food, and drink. |

As a resultant of all these and many other factors in the tubercu- losis problem, we obtain the figures of mortality which are pub- lished from time to time by various cities, states, and nations. The problem seems incapable of solution. One might as well survey an oak that has grown for centuries and set out to determine the rela- tive value of the atmospheric air, the sunlight, the rainfall, and the various constituents of the soil and its environment in producing the sturdy, deeply rooted, and wide-spreading tree which has seen ages come and go.

The world-wide efforts now made to determine the nature of this infection and especially its bacteriologic and pathologic character are accompanied by a general effort to limit its spread. We are encouraged to believe that future generations will be provided with a practical and efficient method of destroying this insatiate monster.

Undoubtedly we have begun at the right end, but we only began within the memory of nearly all of us, only thirty-two years ago, when the true cause of the disease was first isolated and revealed to the human eye.

Previously we were as the blind leading the blind, groping about in search of special climates, special foods or medicines, meeting with more or less success in so far as the dietetic, hygienic, out-of- door plan of treatment was carried out. These curative measures succeeded then, as they succeed now, but preventive measures

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS, VOL. 63, No. 1

2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 63

worthy the name were entirely unknown. The enemy once revealed in its hiding place, and various facts in its life history determined, the logical result was a gradual—very gradual—dawn which prom- ised better things. Now the world has seen a great light and- we wonder how intelligent men could have dwelt in those caverns of ignorance and even refused to come out for years while the men in the laboratory beckoned with signs which then seemed so uncer- tain but now so clear. As late as 1890 the medical mind did not grasp the necessity for preventive measures. As one asleep it heard voices but was slow to waken; it starts and rubs its eyes and looks about, waiting for some word or message that will bring it to its senses.

It was in 1891 that the first society for the prevention of tuber- culosis was organized. This was started in France by M. Armain- gaud, of Bordeaux. The second was the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Tuberculosis organized in Philadelphia in 1892. These were the pioneers in Europe and America. They devoted their energies to a campaign with three cardinal features: (1) the education of the public in reference to the nature of the disease and its means of prevention; (2) the passage of suitable laws regarding notification, the restriction of expectoration, disin- fection, etc.; and (3) the care of consumptives and the establish- ment of sanatoria by public or private means in suitable localities.

The wonderful growth of this movement for preventive measures is now seen in the establishment of 1,228 societies for the prevention of tuberculosis in America alone, and in the erection of 527 sanatoria in this country (1913).’ The State of Pennsylvania alone has appro- priated in one Act of Legislature $2,000,000 for this purpose and one citizen of the state, Mr. Henry Phipps, has given an equal amount for the scientific study as well as the practical treatment of this disease in all its bearings.’

‘The State of New York leads all other states in the number of new organi- zations and institutions established during the last two years. The total number of beds for consumptives in the United States now exceeds 33,000.

*The Pennsylvania legislature appropriated $1,000,000 in 1907, $2,000,000 in 1909, $2,624,808 in 1911, and $2,659,660 in 1913 for tuberculosis work alone. This is under the direction of Dr. Samuel G. Dixon, the Commissioner of Health.

There are at the present time two State Sanatoria in Pennsylvania in operation.

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NO. I AIR AND TUBERCULOSIS—HINSDALE 3

The late Dr. Henry I. Bowditch, of Boston, was one of the first physicians in America to recognize the value of constant out-door life in the treatment of tuberculosis and was accustomed to send such patients on easy journeys by carriage so that they might have the benefit of as much out-door air as possible, becoming gradually inured to the elements.

The late Dr. Alfred L. Loomis, of New York, was one of the first to systematically send tuberculous patients to the Adirondack forest that they might have the benefit of the purest and most invigorating air obtainable and, like the physicians of ancient Rome who sent consumptive patients to the pine forests of Libya, he believed that the terebinthinate exhalations from the standing pines exerted a most beneficial influence on pulmonary affections. Dr. Loomis’s results were so gratifying that he encouraged Dr. Edward L. Trudeau to care for such patients in the Adirondack Mountains throughout the year, and Dr. Trudeau, with his help, founded in 1884 the first sanatorium for tuberculosis in America.’

This Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium, now in its thirtieth year, has been the inspiration of sanatoria for tuberculosis throughout the country. Its success in restoring so many patients to health and usefulness is not wholly estimated in figures. It has established

Cresson, Cambria Co. No. of patients under treatment....... Bp nce ln ont 337 HBT eryeltel O mk pests yeas evc merce aed et stenereteiehsNeloy sieie’ ereveres sales a0 2,550 it. Hamburg, Berks Co. In the course of construction and will be completed some time in IQT4. KEP aC ley meiner erat Iolani alco) sicters eves, eia-eiece a iake 480 FLV Omeaeenee re rcraehonte ore recere nie es ae onan iio one eeete Sinvace 550 ft.

These institutions care for both incipient and far advanced cases. The interior arrangement of the sanatoria at Cresson and Hamburg is such that they can be used for the different classes of cases as demand may necessitate. There is a Waiting list of those desiring admission to these institutions at all times.

The State maintains 115 Tuberculosis Dispensaries, which are located throughout the 67 counties in the commonwealth. There are 220 physicians and 120 visiting nurses employed in these dispensaries.

By the courtesy of Dr. Samuel G. Dixon, Commissioner of Health, we are able to show in a map the distribution of tuberculosis in the counties of Penn- sylvania (pl. 1). This shows, as in an earlier map by the author, that the dis- ease is least prevalent in the higher, forest covered regions of the State.

A. L. Loomis, M.D. Evergreen Forests as a therapeutic agent in pul- monary phthisis (Trans. Amer. Climatological Ass., Vol. 4, 1887). See page 134.

4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 63

a practical method of cure and has done much to correct the earlier unfounded and mischievous notions that prevailed as to what was necessary for the cure of tuberculosis.

Taking this institution as an example, let us see what bearing it may have on our general subject, the relation of the atmospheric air to tuberculosis :

(a) It is in the midst of an evergreen forest of over 10,000 square miles; (b) the atmosphere is pure, or at least as pure as may be ob- tained on the continent; (c) the air is moderately moist; (d) the rainfall averages 35 inches; (e) the air is moderately rarified, ow- ing to (f) an elevation of 1,750 feet; (g) owing to its northern situation, (latitude 44°) and its elevation (1,750 feet) (h) the climate is cold in winter and (i) subject to rather sudden changes with an annual range of 59° C. or 138° F.

CHAPTER II. VALUE OF FORESTS, MICRO-ORGANISMS, ATMOSPHERIC IMPURITIES.

GENERAL BENEFIT OF FORESTS

It has come to be an axiom in phthisiology that the air of an evergreen forest is eminently suitable for a patient with tuberculo- sis.’ As we have previously mentioned, the pine forests of Libya were used two thousand years ago for the cure of ulcerated lungs.” At that period the pines abounded and gave the locality a reputation as a health resort for affections of the lungs. But the ravages of time, aided by fire and sword, not to speak of domestic needs, have obliterated all vestiges of these ancient forests.

The successful institutions located in the Hartz Mountains, the Black Forest of Germany, in the Forest of Ardennes, the State Forest Reserve of Pennsylvania, and the Adirondack Forest in New York owe much of their success to the abundant use of the purest air both day and night.

European Governments have long recognized the great value of

‘The following quotation from Pliny shows that it was generally agreed in his day that the forests and especially those which abound in pitch and balsam are the most beneficial to consumptives or those who do not gather strength after long illness, and that they are of more value than the voyage to Egypt:

“Sylvas, eas duntaxat quae picis resinaeque gratia redantur, utilissimas esse phthisicis, aut qui longa aegritudine non recolligant vires, satis constat ; et illum coeli aera plus ita quam navigationem Aegyptian proficere, plus quam lactis herbidos per montium aestiva potus.”’—C. Plinii, Hist. Nat. lib. xxiv, Cap. 6.

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NO. I AIR AND TUBERCULOSIS—HINSDALE 5

their forests and have protected them by strictly enforcing intelligent laws so that they may be forever preserved and improved. The his- tory of forestry in the United States and Canada has been that of ruthless, unrestrained, wholesale destruction of nearly all our standing pine, and heavier spruce. In recent years, however, we have seen the establishment of Government reserves, State reserves, and State laws for their protection; the organization of the American Forestry Association, the American Forest Congress, the Society for the Preservation of the Adirondack Forest; the Schools of For- estry at Yale, Harvard University and Mont Alto, Penna. All these remedial measures have come very late, but will undoubtedly exert a strong influence for good.’

Aside from the general beneficial influence of forests, universally recognized by climatologists, these natural parks have proved the means of restoring thousands of persons suffering from tuberculosis and diseases of the respiratory system.

QUALITIES OF FOREST AIR AND SOIL

The qualities of forest air and forest soil have been studied by E. Ebermayer * who shows that, like that of the sea and mountains, forest air is freer from injurious gases, dust particles, and bacteria. It was shown that the vegetable components of the forest soil contain less nutritive matter (albuminoid, potash, and phosphates and _ni- trates) for bacterial growth; that the temperature and moisture conditions are less favorable; that the sour humus of the forest soil is antagonistic to pathogenic bacteria; finally that, so far, no pathogenic microbes have ever been found in forest soil; hence this soil may be called hygienically pure.

The soil is protected from high winds by forest growth and under- growth; the upper soil strata are slow to dry out and wind sweeping over them carries few micro-organisms into the air. As may be expected, fewer microbes are found in forest air than outside their limits. Serafini and Arata have proved this experimentally.2 They

"The chief forester of the United States has in 1913 under his care in 160 forest reservations a total of 165,000,000 acres of forest land. The present Chief Forester has done excellent work in the prevention of serious forest fires.

*E. Ebermayer: (1) Hygienic significance of forest air and forest soil. (2) Experiments regarding the significance of humus as a soil constituent; and influence of forest, different soils, and soil-covers on composition of air in the soil. Wollny, 18900 (Hygeia, August 15, 1801).

*Serafini and Arata: Intorno all ’azione dei boschi sui mikro organismi transportati dai venti.

6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 63

exposed plates in the forest air and on its outskirts and tabulated their countings of bacteria for forty successive days from May 6. They made three classes—molds, liquefying and non-liquefying bacteria. They found that, with one exception, one or two of these classes were always less numerous in the forest than on its outskirts and generally from twenty-three to twenty-eight times less. Serafini makes the point that bacteria coming from the outside are reduced in number by a sort of filtration process. Thus we see that the air of forests is comparatively free from endogenous and exogenous bac- teria—none of them in any case being pathogenic.’

CARBON DIOXIDE IN FORESTS

Puchner shows that the air in the forest contains generally more carbonic acid gas than in the open, due to the decomposition of litter.” But this difference must be almost inappreciable. As we know, the law of diffusion of gases renders it impossible for varia- tions in the relative proportion of the atmospheric constituents to be more than transitory. Diffusion is greatly favored by the winds which sweep through the tree tops, especially where they are not too crowded.

The fact that so many sanatoria for tuberculosis are located in or near forests makes it very important to dwell a little longer on the constituents of the air in these localities. We know that forests, as well as all other forms of vegetal growth, take up large quantities of carbonic acid, retaining the carbon and rejecting the oxygen, and the question naturally arises, does it sensibly change the relative quality of either constituent so that the composition of the air is slightly different in the woods? Prof. Mark W. Harrington, lately chief of the United States Weather Bureau, undertook to answer that question, both with reference to carbonic acid, oxygen, and ozone, with some interesting results.’ Repeated observations show

that each constituent is curiously uniform in quantity in the free

air. It has been thought that carbonic acid is quite variable but the introduction of better methods of observation shows that, except in confined places where the gas is produced, the variations are very

*See B. E. Fernow: Forest Influences, U. S. Dep. Agriculture, Forestry Division Bulletin No. 7, pp. 171-173.

*H. Puchner: Investigations of the Carbonic Acid Contents of the Atmos- phere.

*M. W. Harrington: Review of Forest Meteorological Observations, U. S. Dep. Agriculture, Forestry Division Bulletin No. 7, p. %05.

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DR. WALTHER’S SANATORIUM, NORDRACH-COLONIE, BLACK FOREST, GERMANY

VIEW FROM THE ADIRONDACK COTTAGE SANITARIUM "In the foreground are the pines and my only business in life is to sit and look at them”’ Courtesy of Journal of The Outdoor Life

NOE AIR AND TUBERCULOSIS—HINSDALE Th

small. A little study shows that the carbonic acid gas taken up by a forest is a very small quantity compared with that which passes the forest in the same time with the moving air. Grandeau” esti- mated the annual product of carbon by a forest of beeches, spruces, or pines as about 2,700 pounds per acre. This corresponds to 9,900 pounds of carbonic acid gas or 69,300 cubic feet. Now, if the aver- age motion of the air is five miles an hour, a low estimate, and the layer of air from which the gas is taken be estimated at one hundred feet thick, there would pass over an acre 550 million cubic feet in one hour. This air must contain about three parts in ten thousand of carbonic acid gas and the total amount of the latter per hour is 165,000 cubic feet. But this is two and two-thirds, or more than twice as much as that taken up by the trees in the entire season, so that the air could provide in thirty minutes for the wants of the trees for the entire season. Prof. Harrington shows that the ratio of carbonic acid used to that furnished is only one part in 8,600.

OXYGEN IN FORESTS

Again, the additions of oxygen to the air would form a still smaller percentage of the oxygen already present, for this gas makes up 20.938 per cent of the air against a thirtieth of one per cent ob- tainable from this source.

OZONE IN FORESTS

The occurrence of ozone in the air of forests, especially coniferous forests, has been credited, since its discovery by Schoenbein in 1840, with affording remarkable health-giving qualities. This opinion has become firmly fixed in the minds of the public and, to a large extent, has been accepted by the medical profession as an evidence of high oxidizing power at once corrective of decaying vegetation and exhil- arating and curative to mankind. Popular belief usually has some basis for its existence; indeed, meteorologists made regular estima- tions of ozone in the atmosphere by testing with sensitized papers and the results were published in connection with statistics of health resorts.”

The Schonbein test is based on the power of ozone to free iodine from a solution of potassium iodide in contact with starch, when a violet color is developed in the sensitized paper. Unfortunately the

*See Belgique Horticole, Vol. 35, 1885, p. 227. 2See Transactions American Climatological Association, Vol. 5, p. 118.

8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 63

discovery of important sources of error has destroyed the value of observations made in this manner. Other substances in the air have been found to act as reducing agents; secondly, the color after having appeared may be altered or destroyed by substances, such as sulphurous acid and many organic substances. Again, the test acts only in a moist atmosphere and, besides that, varies in intensity according to the amount of the wind, so that, in a way, it is a measure of humidity and of wind.

A more recent test, mentioned by Huggard as more sensitive, depends upon the use of what is known as tetra-paper, but is also considered uncertain. The full name of this reagent is tetramethyl- paraphenylendiamin paper. Notwithstanding the unsatisfactory na- ture of these tests, the conclusion seems to be accepted that ozone is more abundant in May and June and least abundant in December and January; more abundant in the forests and the seashore and in mid-ocean and least abundant in towns where it commonly cannot be detected. The following quotation is from page 332 et seq. of Vol. 1, Watts’ Dictionary of Chemistry :

Very little is known respecting the proportion of ozone in the atmosphere, or of the circumstances which influence its production. The ozonometric methods hitherto devised are incapable of affording accurate quantitative estimations. Air over marshes or in places infested by malaria contains little or no ozone. No ozone can be detected in towns or in inhabited houses.

Houzeau determines the relative amount of ozone in the air by exposing strips of red litmus paper dipped to half their length in a 1 per cent solution of potassium iodide. The paper in contact with ozone acquires a blue color from the action of the liberated potash upon the red litmus. The iodised litmus paper is preferable to iodised starch paper (Sch6nbein’s test-paper) which exhibits a blue coloration with any reagent which liberates iodine, é. g., nitrous acid, chlorine, etc. From observations made with iodised litmus paper Houzeau concludes that ozone exists in the air normally, but the inten- sity with which it acts at any given point of the atmosphere is very variable. Country air contains at most zsy559 of its weight or -gy559 of its volume of ozone. The frequency of the ozone manifestations varies with the seasons, being greatest in the spring, strong in summer, weaker in autumn, and weakest in winter. The maximum of ozone is found in May and June, and the mini- mum in December and January. In general, ozone is more frequently ob- served on rainy days than in fine weather. Strong atmospheric disturbances, as thunder storms, gales, and hurricanes, are frequently accompanied by great manifestations of ozone. According to Houzeau, atmospheric electricity appears to be the most active cause of the formation of atmospheric ozone.

It has been found that the air immediately above the tree tops and at the margin of the forest is richer in ozone than that of the interior, where a portion of it is utilized by the decaying vegetation. Ozone certainly aids in purifying the air by oxidizing animal or

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NO. I AIR AND TUBERCULOSIS—HINSDALE 9

vegetable matter in process of decay and by uniting with the gases produced by their decomposition. It can, therefore, be found in con- siderable amounts where the air is particularly pure. This amount rarely exceeds one part in 10,000. There is somewhat more ozone on mountains than on plains and most of all near the sea. Water is said by Carius to absorb 0.8 of its volume of ozone.” *

This statement by Mr. Russell seems to us extraordinary in view of the minute quantity contained in the atmosphere and apparently needs confirmation, especially in view of Russell’s next statement that a great excess of ozone is destructive to life, and oxygen con- taining one two-hundred and fortieth part of ozone is rapidly fatal, and further, that even the ordinary quantity has bad effects in exacerbating bronchitis and bronchial colds, and some other affec- tions of the lungs.

Ozone is not found in the streets of large towns or usually in inhabited rooms, but in very large, well ventilated rooms it is some- times, though rarely, detected. According to Russell it may be formed on the slow oxidation of phosphorus and of essential oils in the presence of moisture. When produced by electric discharges its pungency of odor is said to make it easily perceptible when pres- ent only to the extent of one volume in 2,500,000 volumes of air and the smell may sometimes be noticed on the sea beach.

Since the discovery of ozone by Schdnbein, not much has been learned about the actual origin of this allotropic form of oxygen. Its presence in and near forests and living plants has undoubtedly supported the popular view that the air of the forests is particularly healthful and that living plants in our apartments are likewise bene- ficial.’

The existence of hydrogen peroxide in air was first established by Meissner in 1863, but we have no knowledge of the proportion in which it is present. All information as to its relative distribution is obtained from determinations of its amount in rain water and snow. The proportion seems to vary, like that of ozone, with the seasons of the year and with the temperature of the air. It is not improbable that the amount of hydrogen peroxide in air is greater than that of ozone, and it is possible that many so-called ozone manifestations are in reality due to peroxide of hydrogen. Watts’ Dictionary of Chemistry.

*Francis A. R. Russell: The Atmosphere in Relation to Human Life and Health, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 39 (Publication No. 1072), 148 p., Washington, 1806.

*See J. M. Anders: House Plants as Sanitary Agents, Lippincott & Co., 1887.

IO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 63

A recent paper by Sawyer, Beckwith and Skolfield” of the Hygi- enic Laboratory of the California State Board of Health, is one of the latest researches which discredit the claim made for ozone as a purifier of air. During recent years circulars have been issued in great numbers by manufacturers of apparatus stating that ozone is a “necessity” for the destruction of infectious germs and bac- terial life, for the sterilization of air in operating rooms for the purification of air in homes of persons suffering from contagious diseases and for giving to offices and homes the invigorating air of the country, seashore and mountains.”

How false these claims are can readily be seen from the systematic work of these investigators, the details of which we cannot give here but to which the reader is referred. Among their conclusions are the following:

During these tests certain physiologic effects of the “ozone” were noticed by the experimenters after they had been working around the machines. The immediate effect of inhaling the diluted gas was a feeling of dryness or tickling in the nasopharynx, and sometimes the irritation was felt in the chest. If the exposure was prolonged, watering of the eyes, and occasionally a slight headache, resulted. The smell of the “ozone” and its irritation was much more noticeable to persons who came suddenly under its influence than to those who were continuously exposed.

1. The gaseous products of the two well-known ozone machines examined are irritating to the respiratory tract and, in considerable concentration, they will produce edema of the lungs and death in guinea-pigs.

2. A concentration of the gaseous products sufficiently high to kill typhoid bacilli, staphylococci and streptococci, dried on glass rods, in the course of several hours, will kill guinea-pigs in a shorter time. Therefore these products have no value as bactericides in breathable air.

3. Because the products of the ozone machines